Landslides can affect water availabiity, quantity, and quality. In recent tragedy on April 5 2008 at 9 pm,sliding of some boulders onto one old bridge in km 38.4,FT055,Kuala Kubu Road-Raub ,Fraser Hill ,Raub district, Pahang had occurred. ERM performance in the detecting and mapping of cracks initiation, propagation, and coalescence processes in the 2D/3D scale needs to be studied to provide the technical support for its field application. The study area is located in Fraser Hill (see figure 3.1). Application of Geoelectrical Resistivity Method to the Assessment of Groundwater Pollution: A case Study of Onibu-Eja Active Open Dumpsite, Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria Ugwu N.U. According to Lagmanson (2005), some properties which affect the resistivity of rock and soil are porosity,moisture content,dissolved electrolytes, temperature of pore water, and conductivity of minerals The proposed laboratory method. The bad economic effects of landslides include the cost to repair structures, loss of property value, distruption of lost timber and fish stocks. The relevance of electrical surveys is to identify the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the ground surface. Resistivity measurement using ABEM Terrameter SAS 4000. Their study shows that proper procedures enable the direct shear box test to provide strength and large-strain dilatancy characteristics that are similar to those measured in a simple shear test. Electrical resistance surveys (also called earth resistance or resistivity survey) are one of a number of methods used in archaeological geophysics, as well as in engineering geological investigations.In this type of survey electrical resistance meters are used to detect and map subsurface archaeological features and patterning. From the current (I) and voltage (V) values, an apparent resistivity (pa) value is calculated. This program is largely intended for teaching about the use of the 2-D electrical imaging method. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Resistivity of Earth Materials. Geophysical methods for the investigation of landslides. The computer program RES2DINV.EXE will automatically subdivide the subsurface into a number of blocks, and it then uses a least-squares inversion scheme to determine the appropriate resistivity value for each block. According to the paper by Symes (1983) and Tatsuoka (1987),for laboratory prepared samples on clean sand, the tangent of the plane strain angle of friction can vary by as much as 25% due to the orientation of shearing with respect to the bedding planes. *You can also browse our support articles here >. From all of the resistivity profiling images that has been carried out,the subsurface formation of all lines has the electrical resistivity range around 700-ohm to 2421-ohm. The clearance between the boxes by tightening the wedges were eliminated.A soil specimen 0.5 inch thick and 1-15/16 inches in diameter was trimmed ,weighted and it being placed in the shear device. Space techniques; remote sensing and GPS with its wide coverage are the proper candidate to put landslide and other natural disasters under surveillance. The simplicity of the testing operation and interpretation of test results make the direct shear box a good choice to begin the study of the complicated behavior of unsaturated soil interfaces. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? ERM has been applied by various application … From these measurements, the true resistivity of the subsurface can be estimated. It also provides insights on the potential of ERM in field applications to characterize soil hydraulic responses to drought climate. In this method, the centre point of the electrode array remains unchanged, but the spacing between the electrodes is increased to produce more explaination about the deeper sections of the subsurface. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2020.102873. From these measurements, the true resistivity of the subsurface can be estimated. Figure 3: Data Acquisition Map of the Study Area. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) known also as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or continuous vertical electrical sounding (CVES), described in detail by Dahlin (1996) and Loke (2011), has been used in the investigations. Applications of Low Resistivity Materials: i. The resistivities of various earth materials are shown below. Also, resistivity surveys may be used as a reconnaissance method, to detect anomalies that can be further investigated by complementary geophysical methods and/or drill holes. APPLICATIONS OF THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR DETECTION OF UNDERGROUND MINE WORKINGS by William J. Johnson – D’Appolonia, Monroeville, PA Introduction The need to understand the location of abandoned workings has recently been high-lighted by the failure of the Martin County Coal Corporation tailings impoundment near Inez, Kentucky on October 11, 2000 and the July 24, 2002 … The spatial and temporal variations of soil water content during evaporation process can be well characterized by ERM. The important point for a designer concerned with stability analysis is that the shearing resistance in a sample or direct shear test on a sample deposited vertically in the apparatus develops along the bedding planes in the soil,and this corresponds closely with the minimum plane strain shearing resistance in the soil, Tatsuoka et al (1986). Many of the early 2-D surveys were carried out with this array. Landslide is one of the most destructive natural disasters in tropical region with these set of climate and geological condition, combined with other causative factors. Other facilities include a children’s playground and a roller skating rink. According to Gassim et al., (2001), the mean annual rainfall for the catchment is about 2624 mm with average of 208 rain- days in a year. The ERT studies were performed along four profiles over the landslide body in the directions of N-S and E-W. A Wenner-Schlumberger configuration was used during the resistivity measurements. Resistivity meters normally give a resistance value, R = V/I, so in practice the apparent resistivity value is calculated by. No plagiarism, guaranteed! … The concept of formation resistivity plays an important part in log analysis. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Drought-induced evaporation can reduce soil water content and cause progressive desiccation cracking, which is responsible for various geotechnical and geo-environmental problems. The word landslide also mentions to the geomorphic characteristics that result from the event. Reference this. The landslides are often triggered by water accumulation within part of the slope which leads to weakening of a section of the slope. Because of this property, the Wenner array is relatively sensitive to vertical changes in the subsurface resistivity below the centre of the array. The road to the hill resort winds for about 35 km after the Gap. As evaporation continues, soil electrical resistance increases exponentially with decreasing water content. Electrical resistivity method was adopted in mapping sand/gravel beds for commercial mining and delineation of water table in Njaba river bank and environs. Electrical resistivity imaging is a widely used tool in near surface geophysical surveys for investigation of various geological, environmental and engineering problems including landslide. (1995) describe the use of a direct shear apparatus for developing constitutive models for interfaces. Practically all commercial multi-electrode systems come with the computer software to carry out this conversion. Anonymous 2005. Applications. In the previous work,an attempt is being made to related electrical resistivity measurement to slope stability of a sloping ground via electrical resistivity-shear strength relationships. The ground resistivity is related to various geological parameters such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock. The geophysical method which dominant by geophysicists become one of most popular method applied by engineers in civil engineering fields. The cohesion and angle of friction value obtained from shear strength results were important parameter because it give indication on how strong the soil can be shear. Soc. And according to Steeples (2001), there has been an increase in the application of geophysical methods to near-surface problems generally including landslide studies, waste disposal site investigations, groundwater explorations, detecting faults, and determining physical properties of soil. Normal force applied from top of shear box by dead weights. Shear force applied to the side of the top half of the box to cause failure. The advantage of using this resistivity imaging is that it gave sufficient data regarding on how we want to interpret the resultant image. In this method, the centre point of the electrode array remains fixed, but the spacing between the electrodes is increased to obtain more information about the deeper sections of the subsurface.The resistivity method measures the apparent resistivity of the subsurface, including effects of any or all of the following : soil type, bedrock fractures, contaminants, and ground water. Hence, it is necessary to briefly describe the soil strength component of the work,as follows: The shearing behaviour of sand has so far been assumed to be isotropic; that is,the sand at a given density and mean stress level subject to any plane strain shear test has been assumed to have a unique peak angle of friction. In addition, the monitoring instruments were usually installed after the landslide had occurred, in a place where the slope reached equilibrium state. This value indicates that at this point,the soil is difficult to shear and it makes water to be difficult to enter then contributed to the high resistivity .One of the reason is because its porosity is high. Therefore, the behavior observed from these tests will provide fundamental insight into the shearing mechanisms along piles and other interfaces in unsaturated soils. The direct-shear test is one of the oldest methods for determining the shear strength of soil materials. To determine the true subsurface resistivity, an inversion of the measured apparent resistivity values using a computer program must be carried out. In Turkey, landslide is one of the causes of natural hazard According to the journal by Gokhan Gokturkler et al. The true resistivity of the subsurface can be quantified from these measurements (Singh et al 2006). The electrical resistivity method has some inherent limitations that affect the resolution and … While there are many other attractions to be found here, they are all pleasantly complementary to Fraser Hill’s tranquil charms. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. According to the report by Jamaludin et al, 2006, serious natural landslides in this country normally occur in monsoon seasons where intense precipitation is the main triggering factor. According to Gomiz-Ortez et al (2006), electrical resistivity imaging is a geophysical prospecting technique designed for the investigation of areas of complex geology; this involves measuring a series of resistivity profiles, using a computer to control measurements between selected sets of an electrode array. Landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, scattered rubbish or earth down a slope. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! The free program, RES2DMOD.EXE, is a 2-D forward modeling program which calculates the apparent resistivity pseudosection for a user defined 2-D subsurface model. ERM presents potential in laboratorial test and feasibility in field monitoring of soil hydraulic responses to drought. This program will hopefully help you in choosing the “best” array for a particular survey area after carefully balancing factors such as the cost, depth of investigation, resolution and practicality. In tropical climate such as Malaysia, the phenomenon is common especially in hilly areas during monsoon season. Besides, a numerical approach combining a soil-atmosphere interaction model and a coupled hydro-thermal model was employed to study the evaporation-induced variations of soil water content. narrow vertical structures. Currently, monitoring tenders are issued by the government institutions which are carried on by the private sector. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. (http://www.marimari.com/hotel/malaysia/hill/fraser.html). Jan Mudler, Andreas Hördt, Anita Przyklenk, Gianluca Fiandaca, Pradip Kumar Maurya, Christian Hauck, Two-dimensional inversion of wideband spectral data from the capacitively coupled resistivity method – first applications in periglacial environments, The Cryosphere, 10.5194/tc … They are based on the principle that measurements of electrical potential at the surface depend on subsurface distributions of electrical resistivity (in Om). All landslides are triggered by similar causes (Bujang B.K. In order to combine the benefits derived from the standard electrode arrays and/or different electrode spacings in some field profiles, both of them were obtained independently, and then combined in a mixed array that has been jointly inverted and interpreted. According to Srinivasamoorthy (2009), the important purpose of electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution by making measurements on the ground surface. Experimental results indicate the good correlation between the measured soil electrical resistance and the water content. Accomplished qualitative applications have been studied for porous (Dailyetal.,1992,1995) and fractured (Slateretal., 1997) media. Electrical resistivity/resistance method (ERM) The use of ERM refers to measuring soil apparent resistivity as a function of soil physical properties. Because of global climate change, drought occurs in increasing intensity and frequency across the world. 1st Jan 1970 All work is written to order. Electric surveys are used instead of drilling methods to eliminate the chance of … Electrical resistivity prospecting is a very useful and attractive method for soil characterization. In this section, we will look at the steps involved in converting the apparent resistivity values into a resistivity model section will be discussed. A recent problem faced in Malaysia is landslides on hill slopes. The direct shear type of apparatus is a commonly used device for interface testing. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. The resistivity measurements are normally made by injecting current into the ground through two current electrodes (C1 and C2 in figure 3.2), and measuring the resulting voltage difference at two potential electrodes (P1 and P2). However, there are still some uncertainties associated with stress level in the shear band; for this reason, stresses determined using boundary forces from this test are considered average stresses for the interface. In the program, the subsurface is divided into a large number of small rectangular cells. The normal stresses and the corresponding values of ?f obtained from a number of strength parameters are determined. Shibaya, Mitachi and Tamate (1997) have given an optimum configuration of the shear box apparatus for measuring the strength and dilatancy characteristics in direct shear. For accommodation, Fraser’s Hill has a range of hotels, chalets and colonial bungalows to suit one’s preferences and budget. From the current (I) and voltage (V) values, an apparent resistivity (pa) value is calculated. Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is one of geophysical tool that offer very attractive technique for subsurface profile characterization in larger area. ERI is a method based on the flow of direct current through a soil/rock medium. (2007), and one of the most important landslide sites is located in the Altindag district. Its scope has recently been extended to civil & environmental areas because of new developments that allow it to image, underground structures effectively. Huat,2005). Retrouvez Groundwater Reserve Assessment: Application of Electrical Resistivity Method et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. The performance of electrical resistivity method was validated by TDR measurement and numerical simulation approaches. The basic principle behind electrical methods is the injection of current into the ground using a pair of electrodes. Soil electrical resistivity can be monitored using a variety of electrode configurations including one-, two- and four-electrode methods (Samson et … The ground resistivity is related to various geological parameters such as the mineral and fluid content, porosity and degree of water saturation in the rock. The estimated soil water contents by ERM were further compared with the results obtained using the numerical method. There were 13 major landslides reported in Malaysia, involving both cut and natural slopes with a total lost of more than 100 lives from 1993 to 2004,. Surface geoelectric prospecting techniques detect the effects of induced electric currents flowing through the ground. The relationship between the “apparent” resistivity and the “true” resistivity is a complex relationship. This current causes a potential difference in the ground which is measured by a separate pair of electrodes. DC Resistivity: Notes: Rock Resistivities http://galitzin.mines.edu/INTROGP/notes_template.jsp?url=RES%2FNOTES%2Frockres.html&page=DC%20Resistivity%3A%20Notes%3A%20Rock%20 Resistivities 11 march 2010Bogoslovsky, V.A., A.A.,Oggilvy, 1977. Line 1 gave almost identical shear strength results with line 2 but line 1 is prone to have landslides because of its slope degree higher than line 2. The resistivity method is used in the study of horizontal and vertical discontinuities in the electrical properties of the ground. Water is one of the essential necessities of nature, indispensible to all organic life and a necessary resource for livelihood; so therefore, its importance cannot be overemphasized. More recently, it has been used for environmental surveys. The program might also assist the user in choosing the appropriate array for different geological situations or surveys. The attractiveness of Fraser’s Hill is based majorly on its cool mountain air, its abundance of luxuriant vegetation, and its peace and tranquility–all of which have made it a favored destination for birdwatchers. Electrical resistivity surveying When current (I) is applied to a block of material and potential drop of (V) volts is measured between two ends of the block, the resistance (R) of the block is equal to (V/I). Important aspects of the procedure include measuring the vertical load in the lower half of the box, and maintaining the size of the opening between the two halves of the shear box at a fixed value of approximately 10-20 times the mean particle diameter of the test specimen. This road is the only one that is connecting Kuala Kubu Baru or Fraser Hill to Raub. Most slides often occur in areas that have experienced sliding in the past. The recent study is managing geoelectrical resistivity field survey that was completed by applying VES method which measures the variation of the electrical resistivity with depth. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. In dense sand, the resisting shear stress increases with shear displacement until it reaches a failure stress, ?f. 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